Friday, June 5, 2020

Achieving Competitive Edge Through Supply Chain Management - Free Essay Example

Executive Summary Efficient Supply Chain Management is increasingly being viewed as critical ingredient of realization of organizational goals and a means of gaining competitive advantage. And hence, companies are leaving no stone unturned to attain an excellent command over their supply chain, be it adoption of new practices or expending huge funds. However despite this, not many companies have been able to build up their supply chain to the level of being qualified as critical component of the organizational strategies. This is due to the inability of the organizations to measure appropriate metrics which would then decipher the strengths and weaknesses of the existing supply chain. There would always be a scope of refining the current supply chain so as to remove any defects that are present in it. These metrics would empower the Decision Makers or the Managers with refined data that will give them a complete perspective of how well the various components of the present supply chain are performing both on the suppliers and the consumers side, and to remove the faults discovered in it by strategic decision making. In the following paper, we suggest the use of Data Analytics to measure these metrics (Key Performance Indicators). This would enable the manager to understand the Supply Chain better and make his own strategic decisions. Introduction Supply chains, initially thought of as a mean to implement re-engineering, downsizing and cost reduction, is now growing increasingly multifaceted. On average, any disruption in the supply chain results in nearly 11% decrease in stock price, and hence deeply affects the shareholders value  [1]  . In this view, companies are looking up at strengthening their supply chains to achieve competitive advantage and gain market share. Not only this, Supply Chain management is now increasingly being viewed as an essential component of the overall organizational strategy. While the business strategy would lay an impetus on where an organization wants to reach, the Supply Chain would encompass the operations that enable realization of those goals. However, with ever increasing competition and price pressure, changing market dynamics owing to fast paces of globalization, increasingly complicated demand planning and more complex product life cycles, the process of getting the right produc t to the right place at the right time at the right price, has become a challenge in itself. Knowing What to Measure Supply chain is fast becoming the catalyst meant to enhance the profitability of any project. In view of this, Companies are investing huge chunk of money to gain an advantage in their supply chain mechanisms. However the glitch in this scenario is that not many businesses are able to measure how well they are doing. You cant manage what you cant measure This age old management adage has found relevance in all disciplines of management, and supply chain management, keeping the above perspective in mind, is no exception. Hence measuring all available metrics is not the key learning, rather the focus should be on identifying and measuring metrics that will point out how well the businesses are accomplishing the strategic goals of the organization and earning increasing consumer satisfaction and hence their loyalty. Therefore what is critical to gaining competitive advantage through supply chain is to figure out which metrics have to be measured and then measuring them accurately. For example consider a company which has ten suppliers. Not all of these suppliers will be equally efficient or cost effective. In this paper we are proposing a methodology that enables managers to get a holistic picture of the efficiency of their supply chain and then manage and control them to gain competitive advantage. We are not proposing any Informatio n Technology enabled tools like Electronic Data Interchange, SAP for gaining efficiency. Even with the application of the enterprise tools and sophisticated technologies companies fail to manage their supply chain because they dont know what to measure. Data Analytics for Supply Chain Management Data Analytics suggests converting raw data, which the company has, to gain useful information about the various processes, efficiency and then use that information for strategic decision making. It could be considered a performance management framework that helps companies set their goals, analyze their progress, gain insight, take action, and measure their success. It helps identify trends, perform comparisons and highlight opportunities in supply chain functions, even when large amount of data are involved. This technology can help decisions makers in supply chain areas such as sourcing, inventory management, manufacturing, quality, sales and logistics. Data Analytics advantage to Supply Chain Management Get an up-to-date view of each phase of the supply chain to expose issues before they can result in problems. Percolated information which can help suppliers and production planners take corrective action and fine tune plans and schedules. Empowered executives vested with the power to oversee important metrics of supply chain like quality of vendor, inventory shortages and production yields along with other key performance indicators. Identify critical supply chain details like most reliable suppliers with balances outstanding, inventory of warehouses, and material demand/supply chain. Better forecasting of demand Detailed information about inventory levels Maintaining constant supply of products Lower costs of goods by ordering optimal quantities Minimizing cost of excess and obsolete inventory Tight cash flow management Overview of logistics of the entire supply chain For a successful use of Data Analytics it is imperative that we should know what to measure i.e. identifying Key Performance Indicators for each element of the supply chain. What follows below is an analysis to deduce the KPIs for some elements of the supply chain and monitoring those KPIs to attain competitive advantage. Identifying Key Performance Indicators Key Performance Indicators, also known as KPI or Key Success Indicators (KSI) are used to measure the progress of an organization towards attaining its long term goals. The selected Key Performance Indicators should be quantifiable (measurable) and must be reflective of the organizations strategy. In addition, they should also be the key to the organizational success. Key Performance Indicators usually are long-term considerations, in a sense that their definitions and methods of measuring them do not change often. This would have some exceptions if the organizations goals change, or as it inches closer to achieving a goal. The legendary Paretos Principle, 80% of the benefit will be derived from 20% of the activity also holds well in the case of these metrics. And therefore, choosing the right metrics is critical and less is also more. KPI for Supply Chain Management Above are the KPIs identified for some elements of Supply chain. Please note that we are not proposing any ch anges in the supply chain. This is because we believe lot of companies do not understand the underlying problems in their supply chain. If we can manage the supply chain by measuring the KPIs and give management an important tool to understand each element of the chain, we believe it will greatly enhance the efficiency of the supply chain and give them the competitive advantage. What we have done is to create some model dashboards to illustrate how the same can be done. How can we measure the Suppliers Performance The first dashboard shows how an organisation can measure the supplier performance. Selection Criteria : Supplier Supplier performance has been measured across the criteria which are listed below. For each criteria we have given a weightage that can vary across organisations. A score on a scale of 10 is awarded to each supplier for each criteria, following which the overall rating is calculated. Savings versus Target : This indicator captures the revenue saving the company registers by partnering with a particular supplier versus its set target.Companies today donot partner with lots sof suppliers but only a few key suppliers to enhance collaboration and communication. However saving cost is also an objective.Allocated weight: 0.2 Delivery Lead Time Inventory Level: Consider a situation where the supplier doesnt deliver the raw materials on time. A situation like this can disrupt the entire supply chain. Of the several possible causes, one reason could be the supplier might be running out of stock. This can be disastrous for the company and can lead to loss in customer and market share. This is captured in the second and third criteria. Allocated weight: 0.25. (Figure: 1- To see the working model click here : Dashboard for supplier performance. Note the dashbaords are designed by the team using SAP BI Objects.) Score Card for the overall rating. Product Quality : Loss in market share of an organization can be attributed to delivery of defective products in the market. Most of the time this is caused by production fault. Yet another reason can be the quality of raw materials that are received from Supplier. Allocated weight: 015 Product Innvoation: Innovation comes with a cost. Suppliers continously keep on innovating their products to enhance quality, create a differentiation which can provide competitive edge to not only suppliers but the company which buys them. Though innovation is important but the other criteria highlighted above are core to measure suppliers performance and hence we gave a low weightage to innovation and more weightage to other criterias. Allocated weight: 0.05 The Dashboard highlights all these criteria for each supplier and also the overall rating. A score board is provided for the decision makers to know the ratings of the suppliers. Note we have shown the ratings for the year 2009 but performance can be measured along various dimension lik time, product, location etc. The dashboard below shows the trend analysis for Supplier A. We can see that the overall rating of the supplier A has been continously declining and it is not wise for the management to carry on further busin ess or renogotiate with this supplier. (Figure 2- To see the working model click here : Dashboard for supplier performance. Click on the Show Trend tab on the top right corner of the dashboard. Inventory, Customer and Prodcution Performance Inventory and Production performance show the internal strength of the companies while suppliers and customers show the external linkages of the organization, and how well it collaborates with them. Effectively measuring the success indicators for Inventory Production is a key to reduce cost, waste and increase efficiency. Knowing what to measure and measuring effectively is key to manage well. We have shown some indicators below, more indicators can be added across various dimensions. What we have captured is the Inventory Level, Product Quality , Inventory Turn over days across two hypothetical product A and B for the quarter ended on June10. Top customers by sales value have been identifed for the same Quarter for both the products. Customer Sales : The pie chart shows the top 5 cutomers by sales for Product A. The same can be seen for product B. Figure 3: To see the working model click here : Customer Inventory Production Management Dashboard. Note the dashbaords are des igned by the team using SAP BI Objects.) For Product A 65% of the total sales value comes from the top 5 customers. If we can monitor the important customers and the type of products they buy, then we could come up with customized options and schemes so as to gain their loyalty. Also, Customer related KPIs like new customers acquisiton, Shipping accuracy, Delivery Team, Percentage of prducts accurately deliveres, Percentage of product return which are not shown here can be captured and fairly indicate the customer satisfaction. For example suppose a company has operations throught India. We are analysing the indicator Percentage of product return(defective). We can start with analysing, for which product and from which geographical regions we are having the maximum return. Once we have identified the region, we can further drill down to know the state, and city information. We can further analyse the Distributors performance in the city and see is there is any fall in revenue fro m a particular distributor. Through the Dashboard, we can conclude say Percentage of retruns for Product A is maximum in Cuttak, Orissa, Bhubaneswar from Distributor A. We can then deal with distributor and try to understand the root cause and take decision to correct the problem. We can also track the performance of the Success indicators across product lines, geographies or a particular customers segments. The whole concept behind this to know your customer well. Till now we have mentioned about the External collaborations required to enhance the effectiveness of the supply chain. The below section talks about the internal strength of the company. This constitute the ability to manufacture and produce the quality product. In the model we have shown the Inventory Level, Inventory Turn Over day and Quality of Products manufactured. Other KPIs like Sales Production, Inventory management are also very crucial for any organization as increase in inventory drastically reduces t he PBIT for the company. It is crucial that the management gets the up-to-date information on the Inventory levels and the Inventory Turnover days. We have also shown the Quality of the products for the Quarter. For Product A the Quality of the products was continusly increasing throughtout the Quarter (Figure 3), while for Product B we see a sharp decline in Quality. This lead to the differentiation in the revenue from the Top 5 customers for Products A B. For Product A it is 65% of the total sales value and for B it is just 47%. Because of the decline in the Quality of the products delivered we can book sharp decline in Figure 4: To see the working model click here : Customer Inventory Production Management Dashboard. Select Product B from the Select Product Menu). Sales revenue. If we analyse the Revenue for the whole organization consisting of many products lines without a dashboard it becomes almost difficult to understand where the problem lies. Through a Dashboar d, as in this case, we can know that for Porduct B there is decline in Sales Revenue because of not adhereing to the Quality. Hence management doesnt need to waste there effort understanding the whole supply chain. A timely and accurate information through a dashboard can make their lives easier, enable them to quick fix the problem and hence give them a competitive advantage. What we have tried to show here is that every company has the pool of data starting from supplier to customers. But very few companies are efficiently managing it. This is where our modeled dashboard comes to rescue. The key learning is that whenever sales comes down or there is a delay in delivery, which can lead to major changes in the supply chain process, it is imperative to understand the root cause of the problem which could be in a diverse range, starting from Cutomer segments, geographical location to production and manufacturing. Dashboards enable manager to identify the exact problem in their supp ly chain. Efficently monitoring each phase of the suppy chain will lead to huge competitive advantage and will enable the managers to focus on the acutal issue instead of incurring unwanted expenditures and efforts. Conclusion Through this paper we are not proposing any changes in the exisitng supply chain, rather, we are suggesting to manage the supply chain by measuring the KPIs. This would give management an important tool to understand each element of the chain and evaluate their performances. We believe that the above mentioned techniques will greatly enhance the efficiency of the supply chain and pave the way for competitive advantage.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Environmental Sustainability Theory A Critical Review

Environmental scarcities theory – a critical review Introduction The problem of environmental degradation stands among the most grievous issues of the civilized world today like global poverty and international terrorism. Climate change, water shortage, deforestation – even though mentioned in its many different forms the effect that humanity has had and is having over nature is a cause for global concern now more than ever before. Consequently, the topic of environmentally induced conflicts has been subject to heated debates when observed through the prism of international security. Literature on this matter tends to focus on one particular theory deemed to be most influential – the environmental scarcities theory. This approach states that the widespread depletion and degradation of water resources and soil quality, combined with the overpopulation of certain areas of the Earth will eventually become strong enough factors to push numerous states over the brink of war. This essay is going to centralize around this theor y in an attempt to answer questions such as: â€Å"Is environmental degradation likely to lead to violence?† or â€Å"How might environmental scarcity lead to warfare?†. In order to fully expand on the subject at hand the written discourse is going to analyse two opposing viewpoints, one supporting the abovementioned theory and the other discarding it as a source of knowledge, which does not provide enough evidence in order to be credible. By critically observingShow MoreRelatedA New Future For Business773 Words   |  4 PagesA New Future for Business? Rethinking Management Theory and Business Strategy Introduction In their 2010 article in Business Society, â€Å"A new Future for Business? 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Sunday, May 17, 2020

Health Care Controversy Obamacare - 972 Words

Health Care Controversy Obamacare may be one of the most debatable topics at the moment ever since 2010. For those who are still confused on what Obamacare is and how it works is understandable and common amongst Americans. Obamacare is also known as the Affordable Care Act. It can be summed up as a law that ensures every American has access to health insurance that is affordable and within their budget. This is done by offering people discounts on government-sponsored health insurance plans, and by expanding the Medicaid assistance program so they include more people who can’t afford health care. In order for someone to qualify for Obamacare they must have an insurance plan that covers at least ten essential services that pertain†¦show more content†¦Beginning this year is when nobody can be denied health insurance because of any previous medical conditions they were denied to before. The law also ended insurance denials that were due to pre-existing conditions. Good news for adult child ren is that anyone uo tp 26 can continue to get health insurance on their parent’s policies. The law even ends lifetime limits on insurance payouts and health insurers are demanded to at least spend 85% of their premium dollars on health care. However, some people still find Obamacare flawful and rule out the positivity it impacts on people and focus on the negative it causes. The fact that one must at least have an insurance plan that covers 10 minimum essential health care services to have health insurance now or through Obamacare services bugs most. The government also limits patient choice through federal regulation of the insurance market, government interference in the decisions patients make with their doctors, and the rising dependence of government health programs. Some controversy that has arisen due to Obamacare would be the government website crash that occurred on the last day of open enrollment. 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Body Image Of A Woman - 1177 Words

Julianna Porter D’Angelo English 12 16 October 2015 Pushing to Be Thin Among the many predicaments women face, dissatisfaction with one s body is one most women would agree upon. An estimating 91% of women have been, or are currently unhappy with their bodies. In the early 1900’s, the ideal body image of a woman shifted from thick with muscle to a thin frame with almost no curves. Women began to exercise and diet to enhance the human body. The new ideal body image that was promoted in society began leading to excessive thinness and eating disorders affecting individuals today. One type of eating disorder that’s significantly influenced by society s ideal body image for females is Anorexia Nervosa. ( Dissatisfaction with bodies). Anorexia Nervosa is a dangerous eating disorder that consists of self starvation and excessive weight loss. Although approximately 95% of the people who suffer from anorexia are females between the ages 15- 20, this life threatening illness does affect males as well (Anorexia Nervosa). While the average U.S. child watches roughly about 15-20 hours of television a week, the individuals are bombarded with around 30,000 television commercials a year. With that being said, about 23% of the images observed are women who would be classified as under- weight. The viewing of these commercials and programs are unconsciously and consciously impacting young adult s. According to Bridget Engels and others,Show MoreRelatedA Womans Body Image And Sexuality1442 Words   |  6 PagesThe perceptions of a womans body image and sexuality though revolving, have gained momentum since the late 1880’s. The advent of department stores during the Gilded Age opened a new opportunity to woman who for the first time were targeted consumers. The department store’s of the Gilded Age aimed to transform the shopping experience into a leisure activity. Women were not heading to a shop because they needed a dress, but rather because they needed a distraction. Many stores provided public restrooms-Read MoreSocial Media s Ideal Body Image For Woman1524 Words   |  7 Pagesand â€Å"womanly† (Merriam Webster/Femininity). When images for â€Å"femininity† are researched, most depict beautiful, perfectly made up, extremely skinny w omen wearing pink clothing with long, flowing hair. This photo description is social media’s ideal body image for woman. 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A major reason many people have a negative body image is because of the impact that mediaRead MorePatriarchal Capitalist Society : An Analysis Of The Commodity Fetishism Of The Female Slender Body911 Words   |  4 PagesSlender Body This feminist study will define the commodity fetishism of the slender female body within the social relationships of patriarchal capitalism and sales marketing. In American society, the female body has a history of being exploited through patriarchal interpretations of the slender body as part of capitalist commoditization. In this manner, unrealistic expectations of the female body are enhanced in various advertisements, which show artificially photoshopped slender bodies. TheseRead MoreMedias Destructive Influence on Women Essay1215 Words   |  5 PagesEverywhere you turn society is being presented with images of perfection, beauty, or sexuality. Some of these images represent unrealistic or unreachable expectations and can be truly harmful. It is common to see women exploited in reality TV shows and music videos. Young women are also influenced by the images that they see in commercials, billboards, internet sites, and movies. These images serve to harm a woman’s self confidence and also are affecting their overall health. Today’s mass mediaRead MoreThe Black Beauty Myth By Sirena Riley1251 Words   |  6 Pagesencountered multiple experiences concerning body image throughout her life. At a young age, she started to feel the pressure to have a perfect body. The struggle of making herself perfect ultimately lead to eating disorders for instance, bulimia and compulsive exercising. In her journey from a young age to her college years she has learned better ways to deal with negative body image through therapy. In her article, she states â€Å"I was in three body image and eating disorder groups with other youngRead MoreMedia Effects Body Image1656 Words   |  7 PagesAmerican Women Body Images Over the past 10 years, mass media and the access to social networks has evolved substantially causing the effects of negative self-image and what is considered beautiful. Body image expectations for both African-American male and female share the battles of society’s expectations, yet African American women body images come with a stricter and more unhealthy stigma; growth of social media such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter brings these expectations of self-image into ourRead MoreComparison Essay of â€Å"An Insatiable emptiness† and â€Å"Distorted Image†1188 Words   |  5 Pagesemptiness† and â€Å"Distorted Image† Body- image anxiety is an issue that many people struggle with nowadays. There are many factors that contribute to one’s anxiety of body image, for example it could stem from media, social and personal view. â€Å"An Insatiable Emptiness,† by Evelyn Lau, focuses on her own personal struggles with bulimia, and her strained relationships with her mother. â€Å"Distorted Image,† by Susan McCelland focuses on the social dynamics of body image and provide reports of different

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Ethics Of Nicomachean Ethics - 1367 Words

Olivia Schoen Dan Brown Ethics 101 8 April 2015 Nicomachean Ethics As one of the greatest philosophers of all time, Aristotle was one of the greats. He altered history and the way our world views philosophy and ethics. One of his theories of ethics that he written in the form of 10 books was Nicomachean Ethics, this theory consisted of Aristotle’s perspective on the life of man and what makes a good life for man. Personally, I think his theory of ethics is a good outline of how to be an ethical and happy, I think Nicomachean ethics is a valid theory as it makes sense, and as a base line or starting point can be applied to many situations. Aristotle purposes that all human beings work toward a supreme happiness or good, this good is†¦show more content†¦Within the ten books Aristotle goes onto explain happiness, virtue, voluntary/involuntary activity, actions, and intentions. All this explanation ties into how and why a person can follow virtues to become truly happy. The first virtue discussed is Courage or Bravery, and Aristotle claims that this virtue is the happy medium between impulsiveness and pusillanimity. He explains that fear is good in some situations such as, â€Å"It is noble to fear some things, such as a bad reputation† (Moschella). And the ultimate fear is death, but one should only fear death if it is in a brave or noble death such as in war. The next virtue is Temperance and this virtue is the balance between a healthy amount and response to pleasures. Natural desires are included in this virtue, and the only way to be intemperate is, â€Å"when he is more pained than he should by the absence of pleasurable thing† or when he indulges in the excess of pleasures (Moschella). The third virtue is generosity and Aristotle goes on to explain that the two extremes of this virtue are wastefulness and stinginess. Giving to the right person and giving the right amount are methods of practicing generosity virtuously, but givin g too much and not taking or not giving enough and taking in excess is the opposite of virtuousness (Moschella). To explain the fourth virtue we must understand the definition of munificence, which

The Digital middletown schools project A glance to the future Free Essays

1. SUMMARY OF PAPER: This article reports on the deployment of a high-bandwidth wireless network for content distribution to two schools. The project, titled Digital Middletown, builds upon the sociological distance high bandwidth wireless technology will make content such as high definition media files, synchronous educational process delivered over long distance high-bandwidth wireless technologies. We will write a custom essay sample on The Digital middletown schools project: A glance to the future or any similar topic only for you Order Now The project investigates how the availability of a high bandwidth (30 Mbps) wireless network impacts the delivery deployment of a high-bandwidth wireless network allows for schools staff in two elementary schools. Project Description The Digital Middletown Project builds upon the sociological Middletown. This report addresses the school network delivery installation of a wireless, high bandwidth network to two elementary schools. Children with broadband at home report that such high speeds for children ages 6-17 with a home broadband connection, 66% broadband for their children’s improved academics due to its high-quality online educational content that is widely available and meets the highest standards of educational Goals of Digital Middletown The goals of Digital Middletown centered on two domains of application: education and community. This report addresses the school network delivery typology. These goals included: Installation of a wireless, high bandwidth network to two elementary schools. Testing the value, impact, and educational potential of content using the network. Facilitating collaboration between K-12 teachers and Ball State University faculty in the development of new digital teaching resources and the customizing of available resources. Defining new educational content models and practices based on the application of digital animation or interactivity. Broadband Access: It include data management, online and technology-based assessments, e-learning, and accessing high-quality digital content, maintain computer networks, maximize educational uptime, and plan preparation Network Infrastructure The Digital Middletown Project (DMP) connects two area public elementary schools and a surrounding neighborhood to Ball State University’s data at 24 Mbps full duplex. Participating schools a) Mitchell Elementary School The school received a 60Mbps (30 Mbps symmetrical) half-duplex wireless backbone connection to Ball State University’s data network. Within Mitchell Elementary School, data supplement the wired connections; four â€Å"access points† were installed throughout the school. The access points provided all wireless connected devices the ability university. This school was connected with a 24 Mbps (12 Mbps symmetrical) half-duplex wireless backbone connection to the data network (a network switch provided 10/100 Mbps data connections). b) Cowan Elementary School. The wireless point-to-point connection from the fire department to Cowan Elementary School is a 20 Mbps half-duplex link. Within Cowan Elementary School, data equipment was installed, providing 10/100 Mbps wired data connections and three access points were installed. The access points provided all wireless connected devices. Provided Content A regular and high-definition movies, games, and regular and high-definition United Streaming digital library of over 40,000 standards-based video. Teachers and students download or stream the United Streaming also includes curriculum lesson plans and student activity guides. The transmission of high quality IP as video, wireless access point feature sets. Reliable transmission of a high bandwidth, saturating video stream can be available for point-to-point wireless trunks, it is not generally available. 2. CRITIQUE: Abstract Depiction The summary provided at the end of the article depicts all the contents of the article and it also describes the future needs of the latest technology for cheaper and more efficient way. The article reports on the deployment of a high-bandwidth wireless network for content distribution to two schools and there is no part of research oriented activity. Literature Review The literature review mentioned in the article is not sufficient to describe the rational of the installation of broadband facility. The article describes that â€Å"According to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB, 2003), home broadband use has increased in the past two years (2001-2003), from 10% to 37% with the average household income of a broadband family being $72,000. Children with broadband at home report that such high speeds affect both their online and offline activities, including schoolwork.† There is shown this project as a need to better understand the practical and realizable potential for the increased bandwidth that may soon become available to our schools to enhance the educational process and to develop the appropriate tools and infrastructure to support this. Seventy-two percent (72%) of small schools— those with fewer than 300 students—had high-speed access, compared to 85 % of all schools. Most of these small schools are in rural a reas (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2001). In February 2004, the Pew Internet and American Life Project released a report that outlined how broadband adoption is growing in urban, suburban, and rural areas, though larger percentages for urban and suburban than rural users. Between 2000 and 2003, the study found that while the number of home broadband users grew from 8% to 36% of the online population in urban communities, and from 7% to 32% in suburban communities, the number of home broadband users in rural communities only grew from 3% to 19%. Technical Terminologies The terms used in the article are not well defined as it should be so that a layman also understands, if this scenario is analysis in context to decision making its terminologies needs more elaboration to describe all the benefits of the project. For example the vey important term broadband must be define and should present a comparison with its alternate technology. Strengths and Limitations The strength of the studies can not be assess unless there is comparative data provision however the limitations of the article contents are that this describes the feasibility of a pilot project for small project area and there is suggestion to adopt the same technology for other educational system if this pilot project succeeded. There is mentioned that the United States Congress’ Web-Based Education Commission’s seven areas for action related to improving learning in web environments (2001) include: Broadband access. Powerful new Internet resources, especially broadband access, that are widely and equitably available and affordable for all learners. Professional development. Continuous, relevant training and support for educators and administrators at all levels. Research and development. New research on how people learn in the Internet age Quality of content. High-quality online educational content that is widely available and meets the highest standards of educational excellence. Regulations and e-learning. Relief from outdated regulations that impede instructional innovation in favor of approaches that embrace anytime, anywhere, any pace learning. Privacy and protection. Safeguards to protect online learners and ensure their privacy, especially young children. Funding. Sustained funding—through traditional and new sources—that is adequate to the challenges at hand. The above mentioned seven priority areas are not fully or partially achieved in the proposed roadmap of the technology. The project must be introduced in component wise according to the need basis and priority areas. There is lack in describing the project in context to needs and its fulfillment factor. Bridging the Gaps There are some gaps to create a link between the technology and its users. The literature review consulted in this regards is used as a link between the users and the technology need. On the contrary this link may be bridge by the future demands of the users and its needs for the inclusion in the academic opportunity. The second gape is the financial and time based feasibility which would be the primary step for the initiation of the installation of the broadband technology. Project Scope The project scope as a pilot project is not sufficient, this must be done under different available facilities in different towns and different intellectual approaches of the users. As the technology output is fully dependent on the strengths of the users therefore this important factor must be included for to define the scope area of the project. Data Sets The datasets used in this article are based on the literature review results and there are different parameters of the proposed project, the reason for this is that it is based on the development action rather than a research based activity. Analysis Technique The analysis technique is not deployed very well the main reason for this is the gaps between the users and the technology success. 3. CONCLUSION: As a conclusion it is can be strongly said that such kind of projects always plays a good development approach but its future success can be ensure by the lessons learned through the past projects of the same nature. The feasibility, comparative analysis of the available parallel technologies, defining project scope, setting of the success parameters and social adoptability of the technology are the main wings of the proposed study. These wings are not defined well and there is no systematical approach to define the problem and proposing the solution. The most relevant literature review and most recent technology are two parallel subjects which set the success of the plan and prove to be helpful to adopt most economical and satisfaction of the end user. These are the guidelines which are missed and because of this no solid decision can be taken as a national decision. This limitation of this article makes it as non professional approach to the objectives of the main studies. How to cite The Digital middletown schools project: A glance to the future, Essay examples

Communication Theories of Management

Question : Communication theories of Management ? Answer : Communication theories Communication is the flow of information from a source to a receiver and back. There are different communications, channels that are available. Recently I went shopping with a friend in a cloth shopping mall. In our shopping spree we were moving from one shop to another in such of the best items that we were looking for. As a communication, student I was observing the communication, patterns that are applied in the process of communication, between the client and the seller. The most important skill that is applied in this communication, process is negotiation skills where the seller attempts to convince the seller on the price that the item is being sold at. The transaction model of communication, positions both the sender and the receiver in the context of shared experiences. Miller (2005, P. 16) suggests that in this model each communication, element exists about other models. This means that communication is an exchange of something of value and thus the communication is based on a transaction that the two parties have. In a buyer and seller relationship, the communication, that takes place between the parties involved is based the transaction that they want to form. Here the seller wants to achieve the best price for the item being sold while the buyer seeks to achieve the lowest price in the market. Therefore each party takes turns in sending messages and the role that each of them plays in the communication reverses each time one of them sends the message. According to Miller (2005, P. 57) the transactional model, the environment and medium of communication, keeps changing where the people that are involved in the process keep chan ging. Once one customer has left, the other customer comes in and the way the seller relates to the new customer depends on many factors like, attitude and body language of the customer. The sender and the receiver keep the conversation alive through an interdependent me relays message between them. Barnlund (2008, P. 47) suggest that the transactional model relates communication, to social reality of the individual or group in the context that they are in. this means that responses cannot be predicted since different backgrounds of the parties involved shape the kind of communication, that takes place. Further social and cultural context determine the nature of communication. For example certain items like under wears are not mostly bargained like other items, while on the hand,, women are seen to bargain more than men. On the other hand, Berlos SMCR theory of communication is based on four factors of sender, message, channel and receiver. In communication, each of the components is affected by many factors that exist within the environment that communication, takes place. Littlejohn Foss (2008, P. 18) states that communication, skills of the sender affect the process of communication,. In this case the shop owner or sales agent is the sender of the message since they are the ones who start communicating with the client. If the seller has good communication, skills the message will be relayed well to make customers be willing to check the prices of the items being sold. On the other hand, the buyer is the receiver of the message and thus the message has to be communicated in a way that allows the receiver to understand the message. Wang, et al.(2009, P. 671) argues that the attitude of both the sender and the receiver also determines how effective the message can be received or relayed. Attitude af fects the message depending on the social systems and knowledge that the parties in the communication, system have. The parties that are involved in communication, like in our case the seller and my team have a common ground in the communication, process for information or messages to flow from one person to another. All factors in communication, must in sync in both parties for easy communication, between them. Salas (2016, P. 79) argues that communication, accommodation theory is based is based on the interaction between people based on adjusting speech and vocal patterns using gestures to accommodate others. This theory is based on reasons why individuals emphasize or use communication, to minimise social differences that exist between different groups or parties that are involved in the conversation. Gallois, et al. (2005, P. 123) suggests that iIn communicating, parties link language, context and identity. Both the receiver and the sender base their communication, on interpersonal and personal factors in making their communication using accommodation (Ayoko, et al., 2002, P. 167). Accommodation is based on convergence and divergence. In our interaction with the sellers in the shopping malls both convergence and divergence were used in communication,. Convergence was based on strategies used by the buyers and the sellers to reduce differences between them to make communication, better; o n the other hand, divergence was based on limiting accommodation by accentuating speech and nonverbal differences between us. Therefore communication, accommodation, transaction model and Berlos SMCR are both based on factors within the communication, environment that shape the way communication, takes place. The Berlos SCMR theory uses four factors to determine and shape the effectiveness of communication,; similarly communication, accommodation is based on the interaction between the parties in communication, who adjust their communication, by diverging or converging to create an environment that accommodates each other(Jones, et al., 2006). Lastly the transactional model positions the sender and the receiver in the context of shared experiences that they have. Therefore organisational communication is based creating an environment that accommodates all the parties involved in the communication, process. Salas (2016, P. 78) suggests that communication, has to be based on creating conducive environment for the message to be conveyed to all the parties. The sender and the receiver must be positioned in a way that allows the sender and the receiver to receive the message and feedback without interference. Miller (2005, P. 22) suggests that commutation is based on how factors enable the immediate situation when communication, takes place to be shaped by socio-psychological states, goals and addressee focus, sociolinguistic strategies, behaviour and tactics and lastly labelling and attributions. On the other hand, when sending and receiving the message, both the receiver and the sender evaluate future intentions when sending and receiving feedback. References Ayoko, O., Hrtel, C. E. J. Callan, V. J., 2002. Resolving the Puzzle of Productive and Destructive Conflict in Culturally Heterogeneous Workgroups: A Communication, Accommodation Theory Approach. International Journal of Conflict Management, 3(2), p. 165195. Barnlund, D. C., 2008. A transactional model of communication,. 2nd ed. New Jersey: New Brunswick. Gallois, C., Ogay, T. Giles, H., 2005. Communication, Accommodation Theory: A look Back and a Look Ahead". In Gudykunst, William B. Theorizing About Intercultural Communication,. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Jones, E., Watson, B., Gardner, J. Gallois, C., 2006. Organizational Communication,: Challenges for the New Century. Journal of Communication,, 54(4), p. 722750. Littlejohn, S. Foss, K., 2008. Theories of human communication,. 9th ed. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth. Miller, K., 2005. Communication, Theories: Perspectives, Processes, and Contexts. 2nd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Miller, K., 2005. Communication, Theories: Perspectives, Processes, and Contexts. 2nd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Wang, H. C., Fussell, S. F. Setlock, L. D., 2009. Cultural difference and adaptation of communication, styles in computer-mediated group brainstorming. 669678, Proceedings of the 27th international conference on Human factors in computing systems.